The web is divided into varying layers in terms of accessibility: there’s the surface, which we know about it, that “traditional” search engines can access. The second layer is the interlayer between the surface of the network and its deep. This layer often does not contain anything suspicious, it is just that the site in this layer of the Internet uses IP without a domain name, which is difficult to access, either you try an infinite number of IP addresses, or you can access the specific IP address.
The third layer is the deeper layer known as the Dark Web.
The term dark web has been applied to a private network that operates within the Internet, to which when you connect to it you have access to multiple content and websites that could not have been accessed via traditional search methods such as Google or Ping, and are like semi-secret member clubs within a larger club.
There are more than one black web, not just one, some of which are free and some require fees to join, and they are usually used for the purpose of sharing files peer-to-peer files and the most popular type of black web – or dark web, as they are sometimes called – is the Tor Network, a concealment program that allows the denial of the user’s identity and website, developed as part of the Tor project in 2002 launched by a number of researchers at the US Naval Research Laboratory to launch a program called The Onion Router – TOR.
Unlike the traditional internet where you connect to the internet through a router or home distributor, networks like Tor provide higher degrees of anonymity, because they employ a network based on a proxy server, which acts as a link between requests from users’ computers, and there are tens to hundreds of thousands of users contributing their internet connections to this project.
When you search for something, for example, the search process is diverted by all these users, rather than just passing from your computer through the dealer’s device, and this makes it difficult for your authorities or service provider to determine who started the search.
And that kind of privacy or anonymity is probably what makes black webs — like Tor — the perfect place for illegal content like selling drugs or anything else conceivable on the black market, and that’s really what the black web is most known for.
Away from the sergeant’s eye
The deep web is used to trade data away from the sergeant’s eye, as this aspect contains a huge amount of “secret” knowledge, which those who published it resort to this depth of the network to escape the censorship of the authorities. Among those who relied on the deep web was WikiLeaks to leak information, which through the same network was able to penetrate network systems, seize data, and then leak it.
Among those who use the black web are human traffickers, drugs, weapons, terrorists, hired killers, and counterfeit currency dealers. As well as obtaining nationalities, passports, citizenship IDs, and driving licenses.
Many websites managed for terrorist organizations were discovered in 1990, and in 2005 there were an estimated 4,000, but the dark web facilitated communication between elements of terrorist groups, with the dark web containing more than 50,000 websites and 300 forums for terrorist organizations, according to a report issued in 2011.
One of the most profitable black web sites is the Silk Road, which has been able to make a profit of $1 billion. It is similar to Amazon in nature and use, but sells one of the legally prohibited goods, drugs, in addition to providing a number of legally prohibited services: forged documents, stolen contents. In less than one year, purchase rates from that site reached $1.9 million a month, according to research conducted by Nikola Christine, a researcher at the Carnegie Center in 2012. He was found out by U.S. authorities and shut down in 2013.
Black web users are transacted by Bitcoin, an electronic currency recognized among its users, whose number is steadily increasing over time, so that it can be replaced by any global currency!
Some analysts see the black web as a technological means to provide as much privacy as possible, especially in light of the increase in regular Internet censorship, even in the most democratic countries in the world. Edward Snowden, a former NSA agent, revealed in June 2013 that the National Security Agency in the United States National Security Agency monitored Internet uses in 193 countries in the world. This case also revealed spying on 42 billion online records per month, and its development of a program to collect personal data via the Internet called PRISM in return, this network represents one of the escalating threats to the security of countries and individuals.
Other uses of Tor
It should be noted that Tor was not built as a basis for illegal use, but was designed because the Internet infrastructure allows users to be tracked significantly, where it is possible to know who to contact who, and because the search process in some countries has its consequences, the black web gives such people who want to use the Internet freedom to roam it without censorship.
Tor’s hidden services allow journalists, for example, to communicate more safely with whistleblowers and dissidents, and NGOs use Tor to allow their workers to connect with their families in other countries without everyone knowing they are working with them.
Facebook has revealed that more than a million of its users access its social network through the Tor network, many of them from areas that impose significant restrictions on browsing the Internet such as Iran.
Curious users can download Tor for free from the project site “Tor Project.org”.
Some countries have sought to track errors made by black web members, some countries exploit and hack Tor vulnerabilities, or even block sites that allow Tor to load.
But these attempts have counterproductively contrary to expectations. After governments shut down these sites and arrest the individuals who manage them, they re-emerge using mechanisms that allow greater confidentiality, difficulty in hacking and identification. The closure of these sites also leads to the emergence of new sites that offer content similar to the closed site. A leaked report from the US National Security Agency in 2007 Bridges is difficult to penetrate, so it can be said that the dark web is one of the dimensions of open conflict between governments, cross-border non-state actors and virtual activists, which is likely to continue and expand the dark web, and the complexity of its axes and applications.